Homemade Food For Puppies: Recipes & Cooking Guide

Homemade Dog Food For Puppies

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This content was reviewed and fact-checked by veterinarian Dr. Aukse Caraite, DVM.

In the early stages of a puppy’s life, nutrition plays a pivotal role in shaping their future health and well-being. Just like infants, puppies require a carefully balanced diet to support their rapid growth, developing bones, and burgeoning immune systems. While commercial dog foods offer convenience, the growing trend of homemade dog food is captivating the attention of conscientious pet owners who seek a more personalized and transparent approach to their puppy’s diet.

My comprehensive guide aims to demystify the process of preparing homemade food for puppies. From understanding their nutritional needs to mastering safe cooking techniques, this article will equip new puppy owners with the knowledge and confidence to embark on this rewarding journey.

Homemade Puppy Food Benefits

Here are some main benefits of cooking for your puppy

  • Healthy eating habits
  • Quality control
  • More affordable
  • Healthier
  • Portion size control
  • Fresh ingredients
  • Dietary requirements can be met

Board-certified veterinary nutritionists and diplomates of the American College of Veterinary Nutrition, Jennifer A. Larsen, DVM, MS, Ph.D., and Joe Bartges, DVM, Ph.D., state that feeding homemade dog food comes with significant advantages, such as diet management, appeasing picky eaters, bond-building, combatting food intolerance and allergies issues, and avoid concern over dog food recalls.[1] Further benefits include preventing many conditions associated with a poor diet, such as obesity, poor skin, coat condition, pancreatitis, diabetes, and reduced immunity.

Why Feed Homemade Food to Puppies

Preparing food for your puppy can strengthen the bond between you and your pet. The time and effort spent making their meals can enhance trust and affection. Observing how your puppy responds to different foods can help you better understand their dietary needs and preferences, leading to a more responsive and caring approach to their nutrition.

Top Reasons to Feed Homemade Food to Puppies

Here’s why you might consider making the switch from commercial pet food to a home-prepared diet:

Increased lifespan Research shows that dogs eating fresh food diets are linked to a 20% longer lifespan than those that don’t. A year-long study of 522 dogs found that dogs fed high-quality, freshly made, real food had an average life expectancy of 13.1 years versus just 10.4 years for dogs fed commercially processed pet food.[2]
Obesity & joints Homemade dog food cooking allows you to easily calibrate the amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, vegetables, vitamins, and minerals your puppy needs to maintain a healthy body weight. Obesity in dogs can increase their risk for bone and joint problems (i.e., hip dysplasia) and subsequent osteoarthritis. Studies show that dogs maintaining their ideal body weight live almost 2.5 years longer (with significantly fewer diseases) than their overweight siblings.[3]
Cancer prevention When it comes to cancer, homemade dog food removes the highly processed food from the equation, which is often linked to cancer issues in dogs. Food processing has been shown to cause free radicals and carcinogenic chemicals to be released. With homemade, you no longer have to worry about oxidative stress due to processed food.[4],[5]
Easy digestion Fresh, homemade foods can be easier for puppies to digest than hard-kibble balls, leading to fewer gastrointestinal issues and firmer, healthier stools. Feeding your puppy freshly made food puts less stress on their digestive system and liver, reducing the likelihood of bloating or other digestive issues.
Avoid allergies Cooking for your dog lets you pick ingredients that won’t trigger allergies in your puppy. If you are unsure what ingredients may cause sensitivities or allergies in your pet, we advise doing an at-home dog food allergy test before selecting the ingredients for your dog’s next meal.
Bioavailability Home-cooked dog food is easier to digest. More digestible food means dogs can absorb nutrients more efficiently and faster. Quicker nutrient absorption means minerals, vitamins, fatty acids, and amino acids act quicker in the body to carry out different functions, such as decreasing inflammatory responses that can help prevent allergies or boost overall health.
Fresh ingredients with no chemicals Homemade meals ensure your puppy always eats fresh, wholesome, and chemical-free foods without additives, fillers, high-glycemic carbs, or colorants commonly found in kibble. Many commercial foods contain fillers that add bulk without nutritional value. Homemade diets focus on nutrient-dense ingredients more beneficial for growth and development.
Excellent taste, smell & variety Freshly prepared meals are often more palatable and enjoyable for puppies, encouraging better eating habits and improved appetite.
Avoid unsafe commercial dog foods While commercial dog food is generally healthy, studies show that feed-grade kibble may not always be the healthiest option compared to human-grade dog foods.

Homemade Puppy Food Risks

Nutritional Science found that most homemade dog food recipes lack key essential nutrients, and other recipes used dangerously high levels of some nutrients.[6],[7],[8]

Below are the stats I found from these studies:

  • 48% of homemade dog diets had an imprecise determination of ingredients and quantities
  • 28.3% didn’t use any recommended vitamins, minerals or amino acids
  • 30.4% of the pet parents admitted to purposely changing the recipe
  • 40% of owners didn’t measure the proportions of the ingredients well enough

How to Avoid These Risks When Cooking For Puppies

  • Understand your [Enter Breed]’s nutritional needs
  • Do not use inadequate or dangerous recipes
  • Ensure your [Enter Breed]’s meal is balanced
  • Do not use toxic ingredients
  • Understand the impact of food and dietary changes
  • Do not neglect your dog’s health conditions
  • Switch to homemade gradually
  • The diet must be suited for a puppy’s lifestyle

Always work with your vet before changing your dog’s diet. You can get personalized nutritional advice from a registered vet nutritionist through Vetster anytime, anywhere. You can also chat with an online vet and ask them questions about your dog’s dietary needs. For further guidance on dog nutrition, consult “Home-Prepared Dog & Cat Diets: the Healthful Alternative” by Donald R. Strombeck, DVM, Ph.D., a renowned veterinary expert. This book is a go-to resource for healthy homemade dog nutrition for most pet nutritionists.

Understanding Puppy Nutritional Needs

Homemade food for puppies must include the six essential nutrients for a dog’s proper growth, body function, and health. These nutrients include proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, vitamins, fats, and water. It’s also important to consider your pup’s weight, health conditions, size, and activity level.

Below is a detailed breakdown of each nutrient and its importance.

Protein plays a vital role in your puppy’s diet, providing essential amino acids necessary for bodily processes, including the creation of blood glucose for energy. Protein also helps build and repair muscles and other body tissues. It’s needed to make new skin cells and grow hair, hormones, and enzymes. The proteins in your dog’s diet must have a balanced amino acid profile and be provided in appropriate amounts.

Protein dietary recommendations for puppy homemade food:

  • Puppies: 22.5% dry matter protein (56.3g per 1,000 kcal ME).

Protein sources for homemade puppy food include:

  • Chicken
  • Beef
  • Turkey
  • Lamb
  • Salmon
  • Pork
  • Whitefish
  • Cooked eggs

Puppies need energy for daily activities, growth and exercise. This energy, measured in calories, comes from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Omnivorous animals, including puppies, derive some energy from carbohydrates. Carbohydrates supply glucose needed by the brain, nervous system, and other critical organs for normal function in puppies. Carbohydrates should also include 2.5-4.5% fiber. You can use our dog calorie calculator to find the exact caloric needs of your puppy based on his weight. Ensure you follow the 10% rule if feeding treats to your puppy. Food would equal 90% of the total calories and treats the remaining 10%.

Carbohydrate sources for homemade puppy food include:

  • Oats
  • Brown rice
  • Potatoes
  • Quinoa
  • Sweet potatoes
  • Whole wheat

Fats play a multifaceted role in a puppy’s diet. They are a dense energy source, provide essential fatty acids for skin and coat health, enable absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, improve food palatability, offer insulation and organ protection, support reproductive health, are critical for nervous system function, and serve as a reserve for energy storage.

Fat dietary recommendations for puppy‘s homemade food:

  • Puppies: 8.5% dry matter fat (21.3g for every 1,000 kcal ME).

Fat sources for homemade puppy food include:

  • Meats fats
  • Fish oils
  • Olive
  • Sunflower oil
  • Canola oils

Minerals in a puppy’s diet are indispensable for bone and dental health, nerve function, enzymatic reactions, fluid balance, oxygen transport, and maintaining the body’s pH level, making them essential for overall health and metabolic processes. Proper mineral balance is crucial and should be carefully managed to avoid deficiencies or excesses.

These 12 minerals are known to be essential nutrients for puppies:

  • Calcium
  • Potassium
  • Sodium
  • Magnesium
  • Iodine
  • Chlorine
  • Iron
  • Copper
  • Selenium
  • Manganese
  • Zinc
  • Phosphorus

Mineral sources for homemade puppy food include:

  • Sweet potatoes and pumpkin (Magnesium)
  • Fish (Iodine)
  • Beef, eggs, and liver (Zinc)
  • Poultry, nuts, and legumes (Copper)
  • Bananas and carrots (Potassium)
  • Chicken and duck (Iron)

Vitamins in a puppy’s diet are integral for maintaining overall health and bodily functions. They support vision, immune health, aid in energy metabolism and nervous system function, provide antioxidant benefits, reduce inflammation, prevent diseases and ailments and more. Puppies require vitamins, but only in small amounts, and excessive doses of certain vitamins, like vitamin D, can harm them.[9]

These 12 vitamins are known to be essential nutrients for puppies:

  • Vitamins A, B1, B6, B12, D, E & K
  • Riboflavin
  • Niacin
  • Folic Acid
  • Pantothenic Acid
  • Choline

Vitamin sources for homemade puppy food include:

  • Sweet potatoes and spinach (Vitamin A)
  • Eggs, chicken, and beef (Vitamin B)
  • Broccoli (Vitamin C)
  • Kale and parsley (Vitamin K)
  • Vegetables (Vitamin E)
  • Meats and fish (Vitamin D)

Water is vital in a puppy’s diet to maintain hydration, support body functions such as digestion, nutrient absorption, and waste excretion, lubricate joints, regulate body temperature, ensure proper organ function, and facilitate metabolic processes. Continuous access to clean water is as crucial as providing nutritious food for overall health and well-being. Generally, puppies should drink 2 to 3 times the amount of their dry food intake daily. However, if water is readily available from various sources, puppies can naturally regulate daily water consumption.

Source: We compiled the data for the table above by referencing the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) guidelines and the Nutrient Requirements of Dogs Report by the National Research Council (NRC). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) utilizes the information from these reports to regulate and ensure the safety of pet foods.

Essential Supplements for Homemade Puppy Food

Calcium and Phosphorus

  • Importance: Calcium and phosphorus are critical for the development and maintenance of strong bones and teeth. They play a vital role in skeletal health and proper growth.
  • Natural Sources: Bone meal, fish, dairy products, and green leafy vegetables.
  • Supplements: If natural sources are insufficient, calcium supplements such as ground eggshells or commercial calcium-phosphorus supplements can be added to ensure the proper balance.
  • Dosage: It’s important to maintain the correct ratio of calcium to phosphorus (generally 1.2:1 to 1.4:1) to avoid imbalances that can lead to skeletal issues. Always consult with a veterinarian to determine the appropriate dosage.

Other Key Supplements

  • Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3 fatty acids, particularly DHA, are essential for the development of the brain and eyes in puppies. Omega-3s contribute to healthy skin and a shiny coat.
  • Vitamin D: Provide adequate exposure to sunlight and include sources like fish oil or fortified foods.
  • Iron: Incorporate iron-rich foods such as red meat and organ meats like liver.
  • Zinc: Include zinc-rich foods like meat and fish.
  • B-Vitamin: Offer a variety of meats, eggs, and vegetables that are rich in B vitamins.
  • Probiotics and digestive enzymes: Probiotics promote a healthy gut microbiome, aiding digestion and nutrient absorption.

Homemade Puppy Food Guidelines

A puppy’s dietary requirements differ from an adult’s dog. Compared to adult dogs, puppies require higher protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus levels. Inadequate or excessive amounts of these nutrients can lead to deficiencies, hindered growth, or lifelong health complications.

  • 6 weeks to 5 months puppies. 3-6 meals a day
  • 6-12 month puppies. 2-3 meals a day
  • Do not skip meals. Skipping meals is not advisable during your puppy’s growth and development
  • Puppy feeding needs are unique. The science isn’t exact. Fine-tune their diet. If your puppy is getting a bit chunky, then cut back a smidge and vice versa.

Homemade Puppy Food Delivery Service

Raised Right

Who It’s For: Ideal for puppies who need all the nutrients for proper development.

Raised Right is one of our homemade dog food delivery options. They offer various fresh, homemade dog food options tailored to your puppy’s unique dietary needs, age, health conditions, and nutritional goals. Raised Right offers three puppy growth recipes. Their meals are made with real, human-grade ingredients and delivered to your doorstep.

The food is developed by veterinary nutritionists who adhere to AAFCO nutritional guidelines. In our experience, using Raised Right saves you time, allowing you to focus on more important things like walks or training your puppy. Additionally, you won’t have to worry about the hassle of meal planning, grocery shopping, or cooking, and you can mitigate the risks of cooking for dogs.

Our readers get 50% off their first Raised Right order with Canine Bible’s link.

Best Homemade Puppy Food Recipes

Here are four of our homemade puppy food recipes you can prepare.

Note: Consult your vet before adjusting your dog’s diet. The recipes below don’t specify serving sizes since they depend on your dog’s breed, weight, age, activity, and health. As a guideline, consider feeding the equivalent amount you’d give in kibble, but always consult your veterinarian for proper portioning.

Recipe 1: Chicken and Vegetable Medley

  • 1 pound boneless, skinless chicken breast
  • 1 cup carrots, finely chopped
  • 1 cup green beans, finely chopped
  • 1/2 cup peas
  • 1 cup quinoa
  • 2 tablespoons olive oil
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground calcium supplement (or ground eggshell powder)
  • 1/4 teaspoon iodized salt (optional, for iodine)
Step-by-Step Cooking Instructions
  1. Prepare Quinoa: Rinse quinoa thoroughly under cold water. Bring 2 cups of water to a boil in a medium pot, add quinoa, reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 15 minutes or until water is absorbed. Set aside.
  2. Cook Chicken: Heat olive oil in a large pan over medium heat. Add chicken breasts and cook until no longer pink, about 7-10 minutes per side. Remove from pan, let cool, then chop into small, puppy-sized pieces.
  3. Cook Vegetables: In the same pan, add carrots, green beans, and peas. Sauté until tender, about 5-7 minutes.
  4. Combine Ingredients: In a large bowl, mix cooked quinoa, chicken, and vegetables. Add the ground calcium supplement and iodized salt (if using), and mix thoroughly.
  5. Serve: Allow to cool completely before serving. Store leftovers in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, or freeze for up to 3 months.

Recipe 2: Beef and Sweet Potato Delight

  • 1 pound lean ground beef
  • 1 large sweet potato, peeled and diced
  • 1/2 cup spinach, finely chopped
  • 1/2 cup blueberries
  • 1 cup brown rice
  • 2 tablespoons flaxseed oil
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground calcium supplement
  • 1/4 teaspoon iodized salt (optional)
Step-by-Step Cooking Instructions
  1. Prepare Brown Rice: Bring 2 cups of water to a boil in a medium pot. Add brown rice, reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 30-35 minutes or until water is absorbed. Set aside.
  2. Cook Beef: In a large pan, cook ground beef over medium heat until browned and cooked. Drain excess fat.
  3. Cook Sweet Potato: In a separate pot, boil sweet potato cubes until tender, about 10 minutes. Drain and mash lightly.
  4. Combine Ingredients: In a large bowl, mix cooked brown rice, ground beef, sweet potato, spinach, and blueberries. Add the flaxseed oil, ground calcium supplement, and iodized salt (if using), and mix thoroughly.
  5. Serve: Allow to cool completely before serving. Store leftovers in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, or freeze for up to 3 months.

Recipe 3: Fish and Rice Feast

  • 1 pound white fish (such as cod or tilapia), boneless and skinless
  • 1 cup brown rice
  • 1/2 cup broccoli, finely chopped
  • 1/2 cup carrots, finely chopped
  • 1/4 cup parsley, finely chopped
  • 2 tablespoons fish oil
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground calcium supplement
  • 1/4 teaspoon iodized salt (optional)
Step-by-Step Cooking Instructions
  1. Prepare Brown Rice: Bring 2 cups of water to a boil in a medium pot. Add brown rice, reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 30-35 minutes or until water is absorbed. Set aside.
  2. Cook Fish: Heat a small amount of water over medium heat in a large pan. Add fish and cook until it flakes easily with a fork, about 5-7 minutes per side. Remove from pan and let cool. Flake into small pieces.
  3. Cook Vegetables: In a steamer, cook broccoli and carrots until tender, about 5-7 minutes.
  4. Combine Ingredients: In a large bowl, mix cooked brown rice, flaked fish, broccoli, carrots, and parsley. Add the fish oil, ground calcium supplement, and iodized salt (if using), and mix thoroughly.
  5. Serve: Allow to cool completely before serving. Store leftovers in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, or freeze for up to 3 months.

Recipe 4: Turkey and Lentil Stew

  • 1 pound ground turkey
  • 1 cup lentils
  • 1 cup pumpkin puree (not pumpkin pie filling)
  • 1/2 cup green beans, finely chopped
  • 1/2 cup peas
  • 1 tablespoon coconut oil
  • 1/2 teaspoon ground calcium supplement
  • 1/4 teaspoon iodized salt (optional)
Step-by-Step Cooking Instructions
  1. Prepare Lentils: Bring 3 cups of water to a boil in a medium pot. Add lentils, reduce heat, cover, and simmer for 20-25 minutes or until tender. Drain and set aside.
  2. Cook Turkey: Heat coconut oil in a large pan over medium heat. Add ground turkey and cook until no longer pink, about 7-10 minutes.
  3. Cook Vegetables: Add green beans and peas to the same pan. Sauté until tender, about 5-7 minutes.
  4. Combine Ingredients: In a large pot, combine cooked lentils, ground turkey, pumpkin puree, green beans, and peas. Add the ground calcium supplement and iodized salt (if using), and mix thoroughly. Heat gently until well combined and heated through.
  5. Serve: Allow to cool completely before serving. Store leftovers in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to 3 days, or freeze for up to 3 months.

More Puppy Homemade Food Recipes

Do you want more homemade dog food recipes and cooking options for your puppy? Check out our article on the best vet-approved homemade dog food recipes. Cookbooks can be helpful in various recipes. Our favorite book for puppy homemade food recipes is Home Cooking for Your Dog: 75 Holistic Recipes for a Healthier Dog.

Monitor Weight And Health

A puppy’s weight and gut health are essential indicators of their health, and you need to track them when switching to a new diet (i.e., homemade). Maintaining a healthy weight is easier when your puppy is fed the right food. If your puppy’s weight increases or decreases rapidly, it might be due to food-related health issues. A healthy gut can confirm a smooth transition to your puppy’s new diet, among other health issues. However, identifying a healthy gut is not an easy task. Fortunately, an at-home dog gut health test can provide insight into your dog’s gut health.

Unbalanced meal plans can cause skin or coat issues, excessive tiredness, allergies, weight loss, malnutrition, and dog obesity. If you detect any of these symptoms while feeding your puppy meals, stop immediately and seek expert advice.

Foods Your Puppy Should Never Eat

Below is a list of the most common toxic ingredients puppies need to avoid.

  • Chocolate
  • Xylitol
  • Onions
  • Garlic
  • Avocados
  • Raw bread dough
  • Coffee, tea, and other caffeine
  • Grapes
  • Raisins
  • Macadamia nuts
  • Alcohol

Here is the complete list of toxic ingredients your puppy should never eat. Please print it out and put it on your refrigerator as a reminder.

Basic Cooking Techniques for Homemade Puppy Food


  • Purpose: Boiling is ideal for cooking meats, grains, and certain vegetables. It ensures that the food is thoroughly cooked and free from harmful bacteria.
  • How To: Bring a pot of water to a boil, add the ingredients, and cook until tender. Ensure the meat is fully cooked through with no pink remaining. Cook the grains until they are soft and easily digestible.
  • Benefits: Retains moisture in the food, making it easier for puppies to chew and digest.


  • Purpose: Steaming preserves more nutrients compared to boiling, especially for vegetables.
  • How To: Place ingredients in a steamer basket over boiling water, cover, and steam until tender. This method is excellent for preserving vegetables’ color, flavor, and nutrients.
  • Benefits: Maintains the nutritional value of vegetables, ensuring puppies receive essential vitamins and minerals.


  • Purpose: Baking is suitable for meats and vegetables, creating a firmer texture that can be easily chopped or shredded for puppies.
  • How To: Preheat the oven to the appropriate temperature (usually around 350°F). Place the ingredients on a baking sheet and cook until fully done. For meats, ensure the internal temperature reaches safe levels (165°F for poultry, 160°F for beef).
  • Benefits: Allows for even cooking and can enhance the flavor of the ingredients. It also reduces excess fat in meats as it drips away during cooking.


  • Purpose: Roasting is similar to baking but typically involves higher temperatures and can caramelize the natural sugars in vegetables, enhancing their flavor.
  • How To: Preheat the oven to a higher temperature (around 400°F). Place the ingredients in a roasting pan and cook until golden and tender. Toss the vegetables with a small amount of oil to prevent sticking.
  • Benefits: Adds a rich, roasted flavor to meats and vegetables, making meals more appealing to puppies.


If you are transitioning to homemade food, mixing it with commercial kibble can help your puppy adjust to the new diet. Ensure the combined diet is balanced and provides all essential nutrients. Mixing foods can be beneficial but should be done with guidance from a veterinarian to avoid nutritional imbalances. Maintain a consistent feeding schedule to avoid digestive upsets. Introduce the new food gradually over a week or two to allow your puppy’s digestive system to adjust.

Puppies generally don’t need frequent changes in their diet unless there’s a specific reason such as allergies, health issues, or recommendations from your vet. Adjust your puppy’s diet at key developmental stages (e.g., weaning, 6 months, 12 months) to meet their changing nutritional needs.

If you suspect an allergy, consult your veterinarian for proper diagnosis and advice. Under veterinary supervision, an elimination diet must be implemented to identify the allergen. This involves feeding a limited-ingredient diet and gradually reintroducing foods.

Homemade Puppy Food Alternatives

Ensuring your puppy receives a balanced and nutritious diet is paramount to their growth, development, and overall health. Homemade dog food offers a unique opportunity to control the quality and composition of your puppy’s meals, tailoring them to meet specific needs and preferences. You can create meals that support their rapid growth and development by understanding the essential nutrients required for puppies, such as proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, and minerals. Consulting with veterinarians or pet nutritionists, using appropriate cooking techniques, and incorporating necessary supplements are all critical steps in this process.

Feeding your puppy homemade food is not just about following recipes—experimenting and finding what works best for your furry friend. Every puppy is unique, and their dietary needs vary based on breed, size, age, and health condition. Don’t be afraid to adjust recipes, try new ingredients, and observe how your puppy responds. This flexibility allows you to cater to their evolving nutritional requirements and preferences, ensuring that mealtime is enjoyable and beneficial.

Do you want other alternatives to homemade puppy food? Raw dog diets are gaining popularity due to their fantastic health benefits. Check our article on raw food for dogs to learn about the benefits and risks, and get the best raw dog food for puppies or even prepare homemade raw dog food. Additionally, if your puppy is prone to food allergies or food-related health issues, consider exploring vegan dog food options. Plant-based diets are also becoming increasingly popular for dogs with food sensitivities and other health concerns.

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Canine Bible uses only high-quality sources, including peer-reviewed studies, to support the facts within our articles. Read our editorial process and product review methodology to learn more about how we fact-check, test products, and keep our content accurate, reliable, and trustworthy.

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  2. Lippert G, Sapy B. (2003). Relation Between The Domestic Dogs Well-Being and Life Expectancy.
  3. American Veterinary Medical Association. (2019, February 13). Study finds overweight dogs live shorter lives.
  4. Podolsky, A. (2019, November 28). Feed the dog not the cancer: The danger of processed dog food. Lyka.
  5. Harvard Health Publishing. (2018, May). Eating highly processed foods may raise cancer risk. Harvard Health; Harvard Health.
  6. Pedrinelli, V., Gomes, M. de O. S., & Carciofi, A. C. (2017). Analysis of recipes of home-prepared diets for dogs and cats published in Portuguese. Journal of Nutritional Science, 6.
  7. Bland, I. M., Guthrie-Jones, A., Taylor, R. D., & Hill, J. (2010). Dog obesity: Veterinary practices’ and owners’ opinions on cause and management. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 94(3-4), 310–315.
  8. WebDev, I. E. T. (2013, July 15). Homemade dog food recipes can be risky business, study finds. UC Davis.
  9. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2023, February 9). Vitamin D toxicity in dogs.
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